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The dry land weeder (peg type) is one of the useful manually operated weeders for operation between the crop rows. It consists of a roller, which has two mild steel discs joined by mild steel rods. The axle passes through the centre of discs and is mounted on the two arms, which also constitutes the frame. The small diamonds shaped pegs are welded on the rods in a staggered fashion. The complete roller assembly is made of mild steel. The V-shaped blade follows the roller assembly and is mounted on the arms. The blade is fabricated from medium carbon steel and forged to shape. The cutting edges are hardened to 40-45 HRC. The height of the blade can be adjusted according to the working depth. The arms are joined to the handle assembly, which is made from thin walled pipes. The height of the handle can also be adjusted according to the operator. For operation the weeder is repeatedly pushed and pulled in between the crop rows in the standing position. The diamonds shaped pegs penetrate into the soil and the rolling action pulverize the soil. The blade in the push mode penetrates into the soil and cuts or uproots the weeds.

Uses: The weeder is used for removing weeds in vegetable gardens, basins of orchard trees and vineyard plantations. It is also used for breaking the soil crust and creation of soil mulch.




The garden rake is a manually operated hand tool. It consists of set of bent spikes joined to a frame. The spikes are fabricated from round steel section and bent to shape. A ferrule is welded to the frame for fixing the handle. Rakes with short handles are used in squatting posture and with long handle in standing posture. The rakes are available in different widths and are operated with dragging action towards the operator. The ends are forged to make pointed edge for easy penetration. The spikes are also formed by blanking from mild steel plate and these do not require any frame.

Uses: For levelling of beds, crushing of clods, collection of uprooted weeds and aeration of soil.




It is a small agricultural hand tool having three numbers of pointed fingers and a wooden handle. The prongs are made by forging operations. The tool is about 100mm long, 100 wide and about 10-15mm thick whereas the fingers are about 4 – 5mm thick.

Uses: Used in intercultural operations.




Hand rake is a manually operated hand tool, which consists of five prongs forged and bent at the tips. The prongs and ferrule are fabricated from mild steel or spring steel. The tips are forged to the shape of a screwdriver blade. The prong rods are bent from the middle in ‘U’ shape and welded to the socket / ferrule to which a small handle is attached. For its operation, the tool is held in one hand and dragged on the soil surface for breaking the crust. Generally the tool is used in squatting posture for light work in flower and vegetable beds.

Uses: The tool is used for aeration in seedbed and lawns. It is also used for collection of trash in nursery beds and scratching / stirring of top layer.




It is a hand tool, which consists of a scoop shaped rectangular blade attached to a short handle. The blade and ferrule are made from the mild steel and cutting edges are sharpened. It is used by the gardeners for turning of the soil in flower and vegetable beds. For its operation, the tool is pushed in the loose soil and lifted.

Uses: For turning of the soil in flower and vegetable beds. Filling of the soil in pots.




The karjat hoe is a manually operated long handled weeding tool used for operation in between the row crops. The tool is similar to the hand cultivator but differs in the design and shape of the blade. The karjat hoe consists of three V -shape blades joined to the ferrule with three staggered tines/anns. The staggered formation of tines aids in easy handling of the soil during weeding operation. The blades are made from medium carbon steel and hardened to 40-“45 HRC. The tines/ anns and ferrule are made from mild steel. The handle is made from good quality wood or bamboo, which is firmly secured in the ferrule. The karjat hoe is operated in the standing posture by pulling action towards the operator. The pulling action causes penetration of the blades into the soil, which uproot the weeds. The shape of the blades creates small ridges and furrows, which help in water conservation.

Uses: The karjat hoe is used for weeding and interculture in row crops in vegetable gardens, flower crops and nurseries.




The khurpi also known as a hand hoe is most commonly used hand tool for weeding. The tool is used in squatting position. The khurpi consists of a sharp, straight-edged metallic blade with a tang embedded into a wooden handle. The blade and a tang are forged in single piece to a shape from medium or high carbon steel. In some cases alloy steel (nickel, chromium or molybdenum or manganese) is also used for the fabrication of blade. The cutting edge is hardened and sharpened. The tang is joined to the wooden handle with the help of rivets. The shape and design of the khurpi are region or location specific depending upon the soil and cultural practices. For operation the khurpi is held in one hand and pushed into the soil for removal of weeds or unwanted plants. The cutting or uprooting of the weed or undesired plant takes place due to shear and impact action of the blade of the khurpi.

Uses: The khurpi is used for removing weeds and unwanted plants from the crop. The tool is also used for breaking the surface layer, aeration and mulching of the soil.




The mattock is a multipurpose double-ended hand tool. The one end has a broad edged blade for digging and the other end consists of narrow edged blade similar to axe for cutting the roots and small stumps. Both these blades are joined together with an eye to which a wooden handle is fixed. Both the ends are operated by holding the handle, raising and striking into the soil or in the roots/ stumps. The mattock is fabricated from medium carbon steel and forged to shape. The cutting edges are hardened to 37-45 HRC.

Uses: For digging and cutting of roots and stumps.




The self propelled weeder consists of a box section chassis, 3-hp petrol -start- kerosene run engine, transmission system, drive wheels, tool mounting bar of 70 x 70 mm size. The engine, gearbox and tool mounting bar are fixed to main chassis. The engine is mounted on front side of the chassis on proper foundation. The gearbox with transmission system is mounted in the middle of chassis. Two steel lugged drive wheels of 500 mm diameter and 110 mm width are mounted on both ends of hexagonal shaft connected to transmission box. The wheel tread (spacing between two wheels) can be adjusted from 400 to 650 mm to suit the row-to-row spacing of different crops. The V -shaped weeding sweeps of 150 and 200 mm size are fitted on tynes. These tynes are mounted on the tool bar with clamps. The tynes are raised or lowered for adjusting the depth of operation and locked in position by the clamp. The spacing between sweeps is easily adjusted by sliding the tynes on tool mounting bar to suit the crop row spacing. Power from engine is transmitted to gearbox through V –belt and pulleys. Inside the transmission box power is transmitted through chain and sprockets to two hexagonal drive shafts/ axles. A lever operated clutch! idler pulley is used for tightening / loosening of V -belt, transmitting the power from engine to transmission box. For operation, the tynes are adjusted to the raised position so they do not dig into the ground and the weeder is transported to the field. The tynes are adjusted according to the row spacing of the crop and depth of operation.

Uses: The CIAE self-propelled Power Weeder is suitable for weeding and intercultural operations in upland row crops like groundnut, maize, soybean, pigeon pea, etc. sown at row-to-row spacing of more than 30 cm.




The powrah is a manually operated common hand tool used for digging and in nursery bed preparation. It is known by different names in different parts of the country. It consists of a thin flat blade set transversely on a handle. The digging head has an eye for the insertion of the handle. The eye is either separately welded to the digging blade or is an integral part of the blade. The powrah is made from medium carbon steel and forged to shape. The cutting edge is hardened to 350-450 HB. These are available in different shapes and sizes. Some of the common powrahs are West India, Agriculture, East India, Bombay, Half Moon, Mysore, Swan Neck and Button Head. For operation, the handle of the powrah is held in hand, head raised and struck in the soil for digging. For earthing operation the tool head is pulled towards the operator in bent position.

Uses: For digging, loosening of earth, making of trenches, weeding and nursery bed preparation.




The shovel is a hand tool mainly used to move excavated soil over a short distance. The main parts of the shovel are blade, socket and handle. The blade of the shovel is fabricated from tool steel. The blade is formed to the desired shape and edges hardened to 350-450 HB. The shovels used for horticultural operations are mainly of two types; round nose (heart shaped) and square nose. Generally these shovels have ‘D’ shape top handle and are operated with both hands. For operation the blade is pushed into the loose soil to scoop, which can be thrown to a short distance by swinging action. In some cases another person pulls the shovel with a rope attached to the socket for throwing the soil to a longer distance. The blade is curved along its length and width to retain the scooped soil on it.

Uses: For scooping of the soil, making of trenches, mixing of famyard manure, earthing and concrete mixing.




The harrow is a useful animal drawn implement for pulverization of soil as a secondary tillage implement. It also serves the purpose of breaking of soil clods or lumps. The implement consists of a triangular frame made of mild steel angle iron sections and square pegs. The pegs are made of mild steel section and some of the manufactures also use medium carbon steel or alloy steel. One end of the pegs is forged to a point and the other end is made as a stud. The stud end is fitted to the frame and fastened in position with the help of a nut. Due to the triangular construction, the coverage is almost complete and a fine tilth is produced in a single pass. During operation the soil clods come in contact with the edges of the pegs and get sheared.

Uses: It is used for secondary tillage, interculture, breaking of soil crust and pulverization of soil.




The weeding hook is a twin- edged sickle- shaped hand tool used for cutting of tall weeds and for loosening of the soil. It consists of a curved blade with a tang fitted to the wooden handle. The inner curved edge has a serrations for cutting the weeds and acts like a sickle. The outer edge is plain and is flattened at the tip. The flattened tip is forged to a sharp edge for manipulation of the soil and acts like a khurpi/ hand hoe. The weeding hook is made from medium carbon steel or manganese steel, forged to shape. The cutting edges are hardened to 40-45 HRC. The weeding hook is usually used in stooping position. For cutting of the weeds the hook is used just like a serrated sickle giving simultaneously a curved and pulling motion. For uprooting of weeds and manipulation of soil the tip of outer edge of the hook is used by pushing action similar to khurpi/ hand hoe.

Uses: The weeding hook is used for cutting and uprooting of weeds in nurseries and vegetable gardens, breaking of the soil crust and aeration of the soil.

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