ANIMAL DRAWN PUDDLER:
The animal drawn puddler consists of tubular steel section main frame on which other components are mounted, mild steel sheet leveller for levelling the puddled soil simultaneously, operator’s seat which helps in increasing the depth of puddling to the required depth by operator’s weight, a steel beam for pulling the puddler by a pair of animals, three number of concentric circular wheels used for: transporting and also help in puddling the soil. The wheels are mounted on the axle, which is connected to the hitching frame. Mild steel angle sections in the particular geometry are welded to the wheels for carrying out puddling operation. For operation, the puddler is transported to the field, which has been flooded with water. As the animals move forward, the wheels start revolving and angles mounted on the wheels cut the soil and weeds and puddling takes place. For transplanting of paddy with rice transplanters, field should be properly levelled. A leveler mounted behind the puddler accomplishes task of leveling. The beam of the puddler is hitched to the yoke of the animals and adjusted according to their size. The puddler is suitable for shallow puddling. With the puddler a higher field capacity and better puddling index can be achieved over the traditional puddling methods, and results in reduced cost of operation in addition to quality output.
Uses: The animal drawn puddler is used for shallow puddling and leveling of puddled soil and also to uproot the weeds.
These are attachments of tractor. The loader is mounted in front of the tractor and backhoe at the rear. The loader and backhoe can be easily removed and joined to the tractor. Backhoe consists of a bucket with digging fingers, hydraulic cylinder, arms and base for attaching to the rear of the tractor. The bucket position is manipulated by hydraulic system. The digging fingers are hardened and can be replaced on wearing or becoming blunt. Loader consists of curved frame in the front, which acts as bucket, arms hinged to each other by pins, hydraulic cylinders and hydraulic system. The loader, therefore, can be maneuvered to the required position through hydraulic controls.
Uses: Loader is used for removal of mud and loose soil at canal worksite, for loading of crushed stones into the dumpers and trailers at stone crusher unit, for loading of salt into trucks and trailers, for handling of clay and soil and loading it into the trucks and trailers etc. Backhoe is used for excavating soil, making foundation for building, making trenches for pipe and cable laying, garbage handling, widening of rural roads and removal of bushes and trees etc.
BAR POINT CULTIVATOR:
The cultivator consists of rectangular frame made of mild steel angle or channel section. Rigid tynes of heavy flat section are mounted on the frame with the help of clamps. Bar point shares are joined to the end of tynes. Bar points shares are made of medium carbon or low alloy steel, hardened and tempered to suitable hardness Bar. Points can be replaced OR wearing or becoming dull. In place of bar points, duck foot shovels can be attached to the cultivator. The cultivator is mounted type and is operated by tractor. The tynes of cultivator can be adjusted vertically by moving in the clamp.
Uses: The cultivator is used for inter cultivation in light and heavy soils for loosening and aerating the soil, preparing of seed beds, and subsoil cultivation. The duck foot shovel version is ideal for shallow cultivation and inter culture.
TRACTOR DRAWN BASIN LISTER:
It is an attachment fitted behind 9-tine tractor mounted cultivator. It is used for water harvesting and conservation of soil and moisture. The lister attachment consists of mild steel framework, ground wheels with lugs, lister bottoms (trencher), roller follower, cam, hitch bracket and reversible hovel. The cultivator tills the soil and the lister bottoms form the trenches.
Uses: It is used for water harvesting and conservation of soil and moisture.
TRACTOR DRAWN BED–FURROW FORMER:
The tractor drawn bed-furrow former consists of mild steel angle iron frame; three point linkage, lifting pin, furrow former, bed former and stiffeners. The bed and furrow formers are made of mild steel sheet and bent in required shape. The stiffeners are used to strengthen the formers. The implement is operated in the tilled soil.
Uses: It is used for forming alternate beds and channels. The beds are suitable for planting crops like sorghum, maize, cotton. This bed and furrow system is ideal for efficient irrigation management.
The channel former consists of two inner blades, two outer blades, hitch frame, mainframe and shovel. The front portions of the two inner blades are joined together and form an angle of 30º in between them. At the junction of these two inner blades a cultivator shovel is fixed to penetrate into the soil. The inner blades can be mounted 50 to 100 mm lower than the outer blades and form a furrow at a lower depth than the surface of the bed for the flow of irrigation water. The two outer blades are placed one on each side of the inner blades and at an angle of 60º to the direction of the travel. The soil collected from the furrow is formed as bund on both the sides of the irrigation furrow.
Uses: It is used for making channels and beds at regular intervals for irrigation.
The implement consists of number of cast iron V shaped rollers mounted on three axles. The implement can be operated either with one or 3 gangs. Sometimes it can be attached behind disc harrow (trailing type) to affect compaction for moisture conservation.
Uses: Breaking of clods and packing of soil thereby conserving moisture.
The tractor mounted disc harrow consists of two gangs of discs mounted one behind the other. The discs on the front gang throw soil outward and the rear gang inward. Therefore, no soil remains uncut by the offset disc harrow. The harrow consists of a sturdy frame, discs arranged in two gangs, and three-point linkage. Discs are important component of the harrow and are made from high carbon steel or alloy steel; the cutting edges are hardened and tempered to suitable hardness. The gangs can be moved in either direction on the hitch frame. The rear gang can be moved the same amount as the front gang. When operating in orchards or plantations, the harrow can be offset to the right or left, thus enabling soil to be thrown towards or away from the trees. The offset-feature makes it possible to work under low-hanging branches. Discs with notches on the outer rim are also available for operation in weed-infested fields. Three point hydraulic linkage and hydraulic control makes it highly manoeuvrable.
Uses: The disc harrow is used for primary and secondary tillage. It is ideal for field disking, especially in orchards, plantations and vineyard. It is suitable for working under trees close to bunds and fence posts.
The plough consists of common mainframe, disc beam assemblies, rockshaft category –l or category -2, a heavy spring loaded furrow wheel and a gauge wheel. In some models disc plough is designed to operate as 2, 3 or 4 bottom, by adding or removing the sub beam assemblies according to requirement. The disc angle ranges from 40 to 45º to obtain the desired width of cut and the tilt angle ranges from 15 to 25º for penetration. The discs of the plough are made of high carbon steel or alloy steel and the edges are hardened and sharpened. The discs are mounted on tapered roller bearings. Scrapers prevent soil build up on the discs in sticky soils. The furrow slice rides along the curvature and is pulverized to some extent before being thrown.
Uses: Disc plough is used for primary tillage and is especially useful in hard and dry, trashy, stony or stumpy land conditions and in soil where scouring is a major problem.
It consists of two curved wings with cutting blades, front cutting point, tie bars for adjusting wingspan, and hitch assembly with 3-point linkages. The cutting blades and cutting point are made of medium carbon or alloy steel, hardened and sharpened. The ditcher is operated by tractor and controlled by hydraulic system. The ditcher penetrates in the soil due to its own weight and suction of the cutting point. Upon drawing the ditcher in the fie1d, it opens the soil in the shape of ditch with either ‘V’ bottom or flat bottom. The wings enable the ditcher to slice and roll the tough sod, brush and root sets. The depth and width of the ditch is adjusted from the operator’s seat. The front cutting point and wings cutting edges are replaceable.
Uses: It is used for making ditches for irrigation and drainage.
The duckfoot cultivator consists of a box type steel rectangular frame, rigid tines and sweeps. The sweeps are triangular in shape similar to foot of duck, hence called duckfoot cultivator. The sweeps are made from old leaf spring steel and joined to tines with fasteners, which makes them replaceable after being worn out or becoming dull. The tines are made of mild steel flat and forged to shape. It is a tractor-mounted implement and depth of operation is controlled by hydraulic system. The cultivator is popular in black cotton soils. Sweeps are attached to these tines. Three -point linkage of the tractor is attached to the implement. The implement is mostly used for shallow ploughing and in hard soils.
Uses: Used for primary tillage operation, destruction of weeds and retention of soil moisture.
The ridger is more popular in the cultivation of cotton, therefore has been named as kapas ridger. The ridger consists of a sturdy frame, share, two mouldboards with tail, head wheel, double handle and hitch assembly. The share of the ridger is made from medium carbon steel or alloy steel and hardened to resist wear in the soil. The mouldboards are adjustable and the wingspan can be adjusted according to row width. Tailpieces are provided for increasing the furrow width. The head wheel regulates the depth of the furrow. For operation, the implement is drawn by a pair of bullocks, the depth of furrow is adjusted by the head wheel, width of the furrow is adjusted by the wingspan of mouldboard and tail pieces. The ridger has two handles, which helps in keeping the implement stable during operation: The furrow is formed in a single pass and the ridge in the return pass.
Uses: It is used for making ridges and furrows for cultivation in maize, sorghum, cotton, millets, cowpea, groundnut and other arable crops.
It is a tractor-mounted implement controlled by tractor hydraulics and three-point linkage. It consists of hitch system, replaceable cutting blade with sharp edge, and a curved plate with side wings, which form a bucket. The blade is made from medium carbon steel or low alloy steel, hardened and tempered to suitable hardness. During operation, the blade digs into the soil and extra soil is collected in the bucket, which is released in the depressions of the field. The angle and pitch of leveller is adjustable. The leveller can also angled left or right, or reversed for back filling.
Uses: It is suitable for land preparation operations such as scraping, grading, levelling and back filling. It is also used for irrigation, terrace work and general cleaning of field.
It is a tractor-operated implement and consists of share point, share, mould board, landslide, frog, shank, frame and hitch system. The share point is of bar type and is made from high carbon steel or low alloy steel. The share is also made from high carbon steel or low alloy steel. Both are hardened and tempered to suitable hardness (about 45 HRC). The working of the plough is controlled by hydraulic system lever and three-point linkage. Its bar point makes it suitable to break hardpan of the soil.
Uses: Ploughs are used for primary tillage operations. It cuts trash and buries it completely. It is also used for turning green manure crop for decaying under the soil, which adds humus to the soil.
Compost, farmyard manure or lime when spread in the field, the mould board plough is used for turning and mixing these materials in the soil.
Pulverising roller is an attachment to commercially available cultivator. The pulverizing roller consists of star wheels, central shaft, pulverizing members, mounting link and depth controlling tee. The pulverizing members are similar to lawn mower blades and are inserted in the cast star wheels in such a way that it forms helical shape and progressively come in contact with soil. The roller is attached to the cultivator with the help of two mounting links having bearing housing on one side and tensile springs on other side.
Uses: Pulverising rollers are used for puddling as well as dry seed bed preparation in two runs, and creates good puddle. It saves 20-35 % fuel consumption and 20-30 % water requirement in comparison to traditional method.
RIGID TYNE CULTIVATOR:
It is a tractor-mounted implement and consists of mainframe made of box section, rigid tines, U-clamps and shovels. The clamping of tines makes possible to adjust the distance between them according to crop rows. The shovels are made from medium carbon steel or low alloy steel, hardened and tempered to suitable hardness. The shovels are mounted on the tynes with fasteners and can be replaced easily on wearing or, becoming dull. The depth of operation is controlled by the hydraulic system of the tractor. The shovels can be replaced by duck foot sweeps for shallow tillage.
Uses: A versatile implement used for loosening and aerating the soil and preparing seed beds quickly and economically. It is useful for subsoil cultivation and also eliminates the use of plough even for hard soils. The duck foot shovel version is ideal for surface cultivation i.e. shallow cultivation and interculture.
It consists of a steel frame, a rotary shaft on which blades are mounted, power transmission system, and gearbox. The blades are of L-type, made from medium carbon steel or alloy steel, hardened and tempered to suitable hardness. The PTO of tractor drives the rotavator. Rotary motion of the PTO is transmitted to the shaft carrying the blades through gearbox and transmission system. A good seedbed and pulverization of the soil is achieved in a single pass of the rotavator.
Uses: It is suitable for preparing seedbed in a single pass both in dry and wetland conditions. It is also suitable for incorporating straw and green manure in the field.
The hydraulic scraper is towed behind the tractor. The scraper consists of cutting blade, hydraulic system, hitch point, hitch bar, apron, bowl, wheels, apron cylinder, side frame? Bucket cylinder, spring, and side arm. The scraper working is controlled by the hydraulic arrangement. The blade is made of alloy steel and has self-sharpening tungsten carbide cutting edge. For operation, the scraper is attached to the tractor, hydraulic system connected and apron is raised. With the forward movement of the tractor, the blade penetrates in to the soil and fill bucket bowl gets filled. The apron is closed after the bucket is filled and the scraper is moved to the point of unloading. For unloading, the bucket is tilted hydraulically.
Uses: It is used for collecting the soil from one place and unloading at the other. It is used for rough leveling, cutting of high spots and filling of depressions.
TRACTOR DRAWN SPIKED CLOD CRUSHER:
It is used as a combination tillage tool with tractor drawn harrow or cultivator. The clod crusher consists of a mild steel sheet drum and pegs are welded on its surface, a rectangular frame made from mild steel angle section, hitch frame and a shaft for carrying the drum. The shaft is mounted on bearing pedestals. The soil clods are pierced and broken by the pegs of the crusher.
Uses: It is used as a combination tillage tool with tractor drawn harrow or cultivator. It is suitable for breaking and segregation of clods for seed bed preparation after paddy harvest.
SPRING TYNE CULTIVATOR:
Cultivator consists of a frame, tynes with reversible shovels, land wheel, hitch system and heavy-duty springs. The function of springs is to save the cultivator tynes from breaking when some hard object comes in contact with the shovel or under the tyne. The shovels are made of heat-treated steel for longer life. The implement is mounted type and is controlled by the hydraulic system of the tractor.
Uses: Cultivators are used for seedbed preparation both in dry and wet soils. It is also used for interculture purpose by adjusting the tynes in wider row crops. It is also used for puddling purposes.
TRACTOR MOUNTED TERRACER BLADE:
It is attached to the tractor with the 3-point linkage system and is hydraulically controlled. It consists of replaceable blade attached to curved steel body, side wings and indexing arrangement for tilting and angling of the blade. The cutting blade is made of medium carbon or alloy steel and the cutting edge is hardened and sharpened. The blade with body is also called mould board. The mould board can be angled left or right by lifting the spring loaded latch pin and by turning the mould board. To tilt the blade for ditching or terracing the blade is tilted to the desired angle by moving the index pin. The depth of cutting is controlled by hydraulic system of the tractor. The blade can be pitched forward and back or tilted at 150 to 300 left or right. It can be reversed for back filling. For increasing the length of blade, extensions are provided.
Uses: The terracer blade is used for grading, levelling of fields, filling of depressions and smoothening of field for irrigation.