The machine consists of tank of 400 liters capacity, pump, fan, control valve, filling unit, spout adjustable handle and spraying nozzles to release the pesticide solution in to stream of air blast produced by the centrifugal blower. The air blast distributes chemical in the form of very fine particles throughout its swath, which is on one side of tractor. The major portion of swath is taken care of by the main blast through the main spout and the auxiliary nozzles cover the swath area near the tractor. The sprayer is mounted on the tractor 3-point linkage and is operated by tractor pto. The orientation of air outlet can be adjusted for its direction and width of coverage.
Uses: It is useful for spraying on horticultural trees and crops like cotton, sunflower etc.
These are tractor mounted or trailed air carrier type of sprayers for spraying in orchards. The spray volume can be controlled making it high volume, low volume or ultra low volume sprayer depending upon the requirement. The sprayer mainly consists of high pressure piston pump, which atomise the spray solution, axial or centrifugal fan to produce a stream of air, interchangeable and orientable spray heads, high capacity spray tank and other control attachments. All the sub-assemblies are mounted on the frame and can be attached to 3-point linkage of the tractor or mounted on a trailer. The spray heads are mounted radially so as to cover the 2-rows of the trees. The spray heads can be oriented upwards for spraying the tall trees. In case of spraying individual tree the spray heads can be exactly adjusted to the form of tree. The volume of spray and the air stream velocity and volume can also be adjusted as per the requirement. For operation the spray liquid is filled in the tank. The tractor power is used to drive the fan and pump. The pump sucks and sends the liquid to the spray head, which atomise the liquid, and at the same time droplets meet the air stream to carry them to the target.
Uses: For spraying tall trees, plantation crops, vineyards and other field crops.
SELF PROPELLED LIGHT WEIGHT BOOM SPRAYER:
The machine is operated by 5 hp diesel engine and is controlled by the operator from the handle. The machine consists of a lightweight power tiller unit and a spraying unit. Spray pump and two narrow pneumatic wheels get power from the engine through gears, chains and sprockets. One caster wheel is also provided at the rear, which acts as supporting wheel. The spray boom is mounted on the power unit through a canopy frame.
Uses: The self-propelled lightweight boom sprayer is used for chemical application on wheat, vegetable and other crops.
HAND COMPRESSION SPRAYER:
Hand compression sprayers are either pressure retaining or non-pressure retaining type. The pressure retaining type has an advantage that air charged once may last for weeks, but requires sturdy tank and high pressure, therefore these are not in common use. Non-pressure retaining type is the most commonly used hand compression sprayer. Like other sprayers, it consists of an air tight, metallic tank, air pump, lance fitted with trigger type or shut off valve, gooseneck bend a pair of shoulder mounted straps and nozzle. It has to carry it on the back. All the parts are made from brass alloy and the tank is fabricated to withstand highpressure up to the order of 18 kg/cm². For operation, the tank is filled to three fourths of its capacity and pressurized by hand plunger pump, which remain inside the tank or from a compressor. The pressure inside the tank is usually maintained at 3-4 kg/cm². The operator mounts the sprayer on his back securing it by shoulder straps and operates the trigger valve, which enables the spray liquid to flow through lance and nozzle. The lance is directed towards the target .A single person can operate the sprayer. For maintaining proper atomisation of the spray liquid, the tank requires frequent pressurization. decreases with decrease in pressure.
Uses: The hand compression sprayer is used in kitchen gardens, nurseries, vegetable gardens, flower crops and field crops.
When droplets smaller than 15 µm fill a volume of air to such an extent that visibility is reduced, the air is termed as fog. Usually thermal fogging machines are used to create fog in which pesticide dissolved in oil of suitable flash point is injected in the hot gases produced by burning the fuel. The liquid is vaporised which condenses on coming in contact with air. These types of machines are suitable for spraying in glass and green houses. For other crops the fogging operation is carried out early in the morning so that fog created is close to ground. The fogging machine consists of fuel tank/reservoir, formulation tank, pump, fogging nozzle, fogging coil, water pump and other controls.
Uses: The fogging machine is used to vaporize pesticides in the form of fog for killing flying insects.
The foot sprayer is one of the ideal and versatile sprayers used for multipurpose spraying jobs. The principle of working is similar to the rocker sprayer. The sprayer consists of a pump operated by the foot lever, suction hose with strainer, delivery hose, spray lance fitted with shut off pistol valve, gooseneck bend and adjustable nozzles. The pump barrel is mounted on a steel frame, which provide it stability when placed on the ground. It has a provision of two strong springs, which retract the foot lever to its original position after each pumping stroke. The sprayer does not have inbuilt tank, therefore an additional storage device or container is required to store the spray liquid in which the strainer of suction hose remain submerged. It has provision for the two discharge lines, which increases its versatility and field capacity. The plunger pump being a positive displacement pump, builds up a high pressure to throw spray liquid to larger distances with a suitable boom. The pump barrel, lance and the spray nozzle are made from brass alloy. For operation the inlet pipe is placed in the storage container and one person continuously operates the pump by foot lever. There is a provision for the operator to hold the sprayer at the top by U-type fixture. The other person directs the lance to the target. For spraying tall trees up to a height of 10 m, a high jet or bamboo lance can be used.
Uses: The foot sprayer is all purpose sprayer, suitable for both small and large scale spraying on field crops, in orchards, vegetable gardens, tea and coffee plantations, rubber estates, flower crops, nurseries etc.
HAND ROTARY DUSTER:
The hand rotary duster is available in two models, shoulder mounted and belly mounted. It is a common type of duster being used by the farmers. The duster consists of a hopper, fan/blower, rigid/flexible discharge pipe, reduction gearbox, rotating handle, shoulder straps, and metering mechanism. The hopper is either made of plastic or aluminium. The hopper made from mild steel sheet is coated with anti-corrosive material for longer life. The duster has mechanical agitator connected to the gearbox placed in the hopper, which chums the chemical and prevent clogging of the outlet. The adjustable orifice plate mounted below the hopper outlet controls the application rate. The fan/blower is enclosed in the casing and is rotated with the handle through gearbox. For operation, the hopper is filled 1/2 to 3/4th of the capacity of the hopper. This is mounted on the shoulder/belly with the help of adjustable straps. The discharge pipe fitted with spoon type deflector is directed towards the target continuously rotating the handle. The chemical in dust/powder form drops from the hopper in the discharge pipe having an air stream created by the blower. These dust particles emerging in, the form of cloud from the discharge pipe are carried to the plant where these settle on the leaves, stems and other parts.
Uses: For control of pests and diseases by use of chemicals in the dust forms in nursery, vegetable gardens, field crops, tea and coffee plantations, green houses, glasshouses and godowns.
The hand sprayer is a small capacity pneumatic sprayer. It consists of chromium plated brass tank having a capacity of 0.5 to 3 liters (one liter is more common) which is pressurized by a plunger pump. The air pump remains inside the tank. The sprayer has a short delivery tube to which a cone nozzle is attached. In some models, the nozzle is attached at the top of the tank with flow, spring actuated lever, which regulates the flow of the spray liquid. For spraying, the tank is usually filled to three-fourths capacity and pressurized by air pump. The compressed air causes the agitation of the spray liquid and forces it out, on operation of the trigger or shut off type valve. Usually the chemicals with suspension characteristics cannot be effectively sprayed with this type of sprayer. For spraying wettable powders the sprayer is shaken frequently to prevent settling of the chemical. For operation, the spray nozzle is directed to the target after charging. It is fitted with mist spray nozzle with goose neck bend. The pump assembly is made of brass and operated by one person.
Uses: It is ideal for small nurseries, rose plants, kitchen gardens and spraying wettable insecticides and fungicides.
Knapsack sprayer consists of a pump and a air chamber permanently installed in a 9 to 22.5 liters tank. The handle of the pump extending over the shoulder or under the arm of operator makes it possible to pump with one hand and spray with the other. Uniform pressure can be maintained by keeping the pump in continuous operation.
Uses: Knapsacks prayers are used for spraying insecticides and pesticides on small trees, shrubs and row crops.
POWER TILLER MOUNTED ORCHARD SPRAYER:
It consists of an HTP (horizontal triplex piston) pump, trailed type main chassis with transport wheels, chemical tank with hydraulic agitation system, cut off device and boom equipped with turbo nozzles. It is fitted with turbo nozzles with operating pressure of 9-18 kgicm2. It generates droplets of 100-150 micron sizes. Depending upon the plant size and their row spacing, the orientation of booms can be adjusted. The spray booms are mounted behind the operator.
Uses: For spraying of foliage, in orchard crops like pomegranate, orange, sweet lime and grapes.
MOTORISED KNAPSACK MISTBLOWER:
The motorized knapsack mist blower has a small 2-stroke petrol/ kerosene engine of 35 cc to which a centrifugal fan is connected. The centrifugal fan is usually mounted vertically. The fan produces a high velocity air stream, which is diverted through a 90-degree elbow to a flexible (plastic) discharge hose, which has a divergent outlet. The spray tank that has also a compartment for fuel and engine-fan unit is mounted on a common frame, which fits to the back of operator. The tank is made of plastic. The spray liquid flows due to gravity and suction created at the tip of nozzle, thus remains in the air stream. Some models of the sprayers have roller pump for pumping the spray liquid into the discharge hose and have tall tree spraying attachment. These sprayers have shear type nozzles. For operation, the tank is filled with the spray liquid and cranking with the rope starts the engine. Upon rotation of the engine the fan produces a high velocity air stream. The control valve for the spray liquid is opened gradually and adjusted for the desired flow rate. The operator directs the discharge hose to the target. The spray liquid that falls in the air stream gets sheared and upon coming in contact with the atmosphere a mist is produced.
Uses: It is used for spraying in orchards, coffee estates and tall crops.
STIRRUP PUMP SPRAYER:
The stirrup pump sprayer commonly used for Mosquito control, is quite popular among the small farmers and vegetable growers due its simplicity, low cost and ease of operation. It is also called bucket sprayer, as the pump always remains submerged in a bucket containing the spray liquid. It consists of a double action pump, seamless brass tube barrel, adjustable stirrup foot rest, angular delivery spout, relief valve in the foot valve, plunger, shaft fitted with travel limiter, D type handle, brass balls, detachable gooseneck bend in the spray lance, spray lance fitted with nozzle, delivery hose and trigger cut- off valve with strainer. For operation, the barrel fitted with pump is placed in a bucket containing spray liquid and one person operate the pump by placing his foot on the foot stirrup and moves the pump shaft fitted with D type handle. The other person holds the spray lance and directs it towards the target. All the major parts are made of brass. Usually a flat fan spray nozzle is used with the sprayer. The sprayer is provided with 5m delivery pipe. The field capacity of the sprayer is 0.3 ha/day.
Uses: It is used for spraying in orchards, nurseries, flower crops, vegetable gardens etc.
The rocker sprayer is a long lever high-pressure sprayer designed for operation with one or two lances. The complete assembly is mounted on a wooden board, which is held to the ground by the foot of the operator. The sprayer consists of a single or double acting piston pump for developing high pressure, an air chamber, spray lance with shut off valve and strainer, 5 m suction line fitted with strainer and delivery line. The principal components are made from brass alloy. The lance is fitted with gooseneck bend and nozzle and the length of lance may vary from 60 to 90 cm. The pump is operated with long lever to and fro in a rocking motion which suck the liquid from the inlet pipe submerged in the spray liquid. The other person holds the lance and directs the spray chemical to the target. If two lances are used, then it may require in all three persons for the spraying operation. With high jet spray gun or bamboo lance the spray chemical can be delivered to a height of up to 10m.
Uses: For spraying on tall trees like coconut, areca nut, sugarcane, rubber plantations, orchards, vineyards and field crops, vegetable gardens, flower crops etc.