Cultivation of Redgram: Complete guide on Redgram farming involves in seed treatment, planting, pest management, irrigation, harvesting and benefits.
Scientific name of REDGRAM ( Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. ):
The pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) is a perennial legume from the family Fabaceae.Pigeon peas can be of a perennial variety, in which the crop can last three to five years (although the seed yield drops considerably after the first two years), or an annual variety more suitable for seed production.
Pigeon peas are both a food crop (dried peas, flour, or green vegetable peas) and a forage/cover crop. In combination with cereals, pigeon peas make a well-balanced human food. The dried peas may be sprouted briefly, then cooked, for a flavor different from the green or dried peas. Sprouting also enhances the digestibility of dried pigeon peas via the reduction of indigestible sugars that would otherwise remain in the cooked dried peas.
In India, split pigeon peas (toor dal) also called Kandhi pappu in Telugu, Togari bele in Kannada and Tuvaram paruppu in Tamil are one of the most popular pulses, being an important source of protein in a mostly vegetarian diet. In regions where it grows, fresh young pods are eaten as a vegetable in dishes such as sambar.
1. PREPARATION OF THE LAND:
Prepare the land to fine tilth and apply 12.5 t FYM/ha or composted coir pith at the time of last ploughing and form ridges and furrows.
2. SEED TREATMENT:
Treat the seeds with Carbendazim or Thiram @ 2 g/kg of seed 24 hours before sowing (or) with talc formulation of Trichoderma viride @ 4g/kg of seed (or) Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 10 g/kg seed. Bio control agents are compatible with biofertilizers. First treat the seeds with biocontrol agents and then with rhizobium. Fungicides and biocontrol agents are incompatible.
3. TREATMENT OF THE SEEDS WITH BIOFERTILIZER:
- Fungicide (or) bio control agents treated seeds should be again treated with bacterial culture after 24 hours. Treat the seeds required for sowing 1 ha with Rhizobial culture CRR 6 / CPR 9, phosphobacteria (Bacillus megaterium) and PGPR (Pseudomonas sp.) developed at TNAU, with one packet each (200g). For red lateritic soil, Rhizobial culture VPR 1 is effective.
- Using rice kanji as binder, Rhizobium should be given as seed treatment only. For PSB and PGPR, if the seed treatment is not carried out, apply 10 packets (2 kg) of Phosphobacteria (Bacillusm megaterium) and 10 packets (2 kg) of PGPR (Pseudomonas sp.) with 25 kg of FYM and 25 kg of soil before sowing.
4. APPLICATION OF FERTILIZERS:
- Apply fertilizers basally before sowing.
Rainfed : 12.5 kg N + 25 kg P2O5 + 12.5 kg K2O +10 kg S*/ha
Irrigated : 25 kg N + 50 kg P2O5 + 25 kg K2O + 20 kg S*/ha
*Note : Applied in the form of gypsum if Single Super Phospate is not applied as a source of phosphorus
- Soil application of 25 kg ZnSo4/ha under irrigated condition
- Soil application of TNAU micronutrient mixture @ 5 kg/ha as Enriched FYM (Prepare enriched FYM at 1:10 ratio of MN mixture & FYM ; mix at friable moisture &incubate for one month in shade).
Foliar spray of 1% urea for yield improvement in black gram:
For yield improvement through increasing the physiological, biochemical attributes, foliar spray of urea 1% on 30 and 45 days after sowing is recommended. For rice fallow pulses in Delta area, the present recommendation of foliar spray of 2% DAP may be continued.
Foliar spraying to mitigate moisture stress:
Foliar spraying of 2%KCl + 100 ppm Boron during dry spell as mid season management practice in black gram during Rabi season is recommended to increase the yield over KCl spray alone .
Economizing the use of micronutrients through seed treatment for blackgram:
Seed coating with biofertilizers and micronutrients viz., Zn, Mo & Co @ 4, 1, 0.5 g/kg of seed is recommended.
Nitrogen substitution by organic sources for pulses:
50 per cent nitrogen can be substituted through organic source (850 kg of vermicompost per hectare).
Lime application is recommended for pulses with soil pH less than 6.0.
5. SOWING THE SEEDS:
Dibble the seeds adopting the following spacing.
6. WEED MANAGEMENT:
- Pre emergence application of Pendimethalin 0.75 kg/ha (2.5 litres/ha) on 3 DAS mixed with 500 litres of water using Backpack/Knapsack/Rocker sprayer using flat fan deflector type of nozzle. Then irrigate the field. Following this, one hand weeding may be given on 30-35 DAS
- If herbicide is not given, give two hand weedings on 20 and 35 DAS.
- In case of labour problem, apply Pendimethalin 0.75 kg (2.5 lit/ha) on 3 DAS followed by early post emergence application of Imazethapyr @ 60 g ai/ha on 15 DAE of weeds (2 – 3 leaves stage of weeds) and quizalofop ethyl @ 50 g ai/ha on 20 DAE of weeds (2 – 3 leaves of weeds) are recommended for controlling broad leaved and grassy weeds, respectively. If both the weeds are present, tank mix application of Imazethapyr @ 60 g ai/ha and quizalofop ethyl @ 50 g ai/ha at 15 – 20 days after emergence of weeds (2 – 3 leaves stage of weeds) is recommended.
- Apply PE metalachlor 1.0 kg ha-1 on 3 DAS followed by one hand weeding on 40 DAS. Note: At the time of herbicide application, there should be sufficient soil moisture.
7. WATER MANAGEMENT:
Irrigate immediately after sowing, 3rd day after sowing, bud initiation, 50 % flowering and pod development stages. Water stagnation should be avoided.
8. SPRAYING OF DIAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE OR UREA, NAA AND SALICYLIC ACID:
- Foliar spray of NAA 40 mg/l once at pre-flowering and another at 15 days thereafter
- Foliar spray of DAP 20 g/l or urea 20 g/l once at flowering and another at 15 days there after
- Foliar spray of salicylic and 100 mg/litre once at preflowering and another at 15 days there after
9. HARVESTING THE CROP:
- Harvest the whole plants when 80% of the pods mature.
- Heap for 2 – 3 days
- Dry and process.
- Raising one row of long duration redgram varieties as inter crop for every six rows of groundnut (6:1) is recommended for rainfed crops.
- Raising one row of short and medium duration redgram as inter crop for every four rows of groundnut (4:1) is recommended for rainfed as well as for irrigated crops.
- Multistoreyed cropping: For rainfed Vertisols of Virudhunagar, Tirunelveli, Thoothukudi districts recording more than 300 mm of rainfall during the crop growth period, multistoreyed cropping system Agathi + Redgram (CO 5) + Cotton (MCU 10) + Blackgram (CO 5) is highly profitable. (Agathi in I tier with 1 x 1 m spacing – Redgram in II tier with a spacing of 45 x 20 cm – Cotton in the III tier with a spacing of 45 x 15 cm – Blackgram in the IV tier with the spacing of 30 x 10 cm).
For rainfed Vertisols receiving less than 300 mm of rainfall, Agathi + Sorghum (CO 26) + Cotton (MCU 10) + Blackgram (CO 5) system is ideal. For both systems, apply 40 kg N and 20 kg P2O5/ha. (Agathi in I tier with a spacing of 1 x 1 m – sorghum in II tier with a spacing of 45 x 15 cm – cotton in III tier with the spacing of 45 x 15 cm and Blackgram in IV tier with 30 x 10 cm).
- Select only long duration redgram varieties
- Transplant within the month of August either under rainfed condition or under irrigated condition
- Select poly bag with a size of 6×4 inches and 200 micron thickness
- Fill the poly bag with native soil: Sand: FYM @1:1:1 and put 3-4 holes in the bottom to avoid water stagnation
- Soak the seeds in 0.2% Calcium chloride for one hour and dry it under shade for 7 hours to harden the seeds
- Treat the hardened seeds with T. viride @ 4g/kg and 100 g Rhizobium and 100 g phosphobacterium. Sow the seeds @2/poly bag at 1 cm depth
- Sow the seeds in polybags 30-45 days prior to transplanting
- Plough the field deeply to get fine tilth followed by 2-3 harrowings at 3 weeks prior to transplanting
- In medium to deep soils for raising long duration varieties, dig 15 sqcm pits at 5’ X 3’ for pure crops and 6’ x 3’ for intercropping under irrigated condition. In rainfed condition dig the pits at a spacing of 5’x3’. For short duration varieties dig 15 sq cm pits at 3’ x 2’ spacing.
- Under water logging condition, form furrows before digging pits
- Apply inorganic fertilizers @ 25:50:25 kg NPK /ha at 20-30 days after planting as urea, DAP and potash around the seedlings
- Apply ZnSO4 @ 25 kg/ ha as basal along with FYM or sand
- Nip (removal of top 5 cm) the plants at 20 – 30 days after planting to arrest the terminal growth
- Spray planofix @ 0.5 ml/litre to control flower dropping
11. NUTRITIONAL DISORDERS:
Redgram / Greengram/Blackgram/Cowpea
Zinc: Symptom appears within a month of sowing. The plants are stripped with yellow or pale green foliage. Veins and mid ribs of the leaves are green although tissue around them becomes yellow and bronzed.
Iron: Reduced concentration of Chlorophyll in leaves – pale leaf colour may be indistinguishable from deficiency of nitrogen or other elements.
Foliar spray of Pulse Wonder @ 2 kg/acre in 200 litres of water at flower initiation stage decreases flower shedding, increases yield and offers moisture stress tolerance
- Pests of Redgram
- Diseases of Redgram
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