Cultivation of Garlic plant: Complete guide on Garlic plant farming involves in seed treatment, planting, pest management, irrigation, harvesting and uses.
Scientific name of GARLIC (Allium sativum L) Alliaceae:
Allium sativum, commonly known as garlic, is a species in the onion genus, Allium. Its close relatives include the onion, shallot, leek, chive, and rakkyo. With a history of human use of over 7,000 years, garlic is native to central Asia, and has long been a staple in the Mediterranean region, as well as a frequent seasoning in Asia, Africa, and Europe. It was known to Ancient Egyptians, and has been used for both culinary and medicinal purposes.
Garlic is widely used around the world for its pungent flavor as a seasoning or condiment. The garlic plant’s bulb is the most commonly used part of the plant. With the exception of the single clove types, garlic bulbs are normally divided into numerous fleshy sections called cloves. Garlic cloves are used for consumption (raw or cooked) or for medicinal purposes. They have a characteristic pungent, spicy flavor that mellows and sweetens considerably with cooking.
Other parts of the garlic plant are also edible. The leaves and flowers (bulbils) on the head (spathe) are sometimes eaten. They are milder in flavor than the bulbs, and are most often consumed while immature and still tender. Immature garlic is sometimes pulled, rather like a scallion, and sold as “green garlic”. When green garlic is allowed to grow past the “scallion” stage, but not permitted to fully mature, it may produce a garlic “round”, a bulb like a boiling onion, but not separated into cloves like a mature bulb. It imparts a garlic flavor and aroma in food, minus the spiciness. Green garlic is often chopped and stir-fried or cooked in soup or hotpot in Southeast Asian (i.e. Vietnamese, Thai, Lao, Cambodian, Singaporean) and Chinese cookery, and is very abundant and low-priced. Additionally, the immature flower stalks (scapes) of the hardneck and elephant types are sometimes marketed for uses similar to asparagus in stir-fries.
Inedible or rarely eaten parts of the garlic plant include the “skin” covering each clove and root cluster. The papery, protective layers of “skin” over various parts of the plant are generally discarded during preparation for most culinary uses, though in Korea immature whole heads are sometimes prepared with the tender skins intact. The root cluster attached to the basal plate of the bulb is the only part not typically considered palatable in any form.
Garlic is a fundamental component in many or most dishes of various regions, including eastern Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, the Middle East, northern Africa, southern Europe, and parts of South and Central America. The flavor varies in intensity and aroma with the different cooking methods. It is often paired with onion, tomato, or ginger. The parchment-like skin is much like the skin of an onion, and is typically removed before using in raw or cooked form. An alternative is to cut the top off the bulb, coat the cloves by dribbling olive oil (or other oil-based seasoning) over them, and roast them in an oven. Garlic softens and can be extracted from the cloves by squeezing the (root) end of the bulb, or individually by squeezing one end of the clove. In Korea, heads of garlic are fermented at high temperature; the resulting product, called black garlic, is sweet and syrupy, and is now being sold in the United States, United Kingdom and Australia.
Ooty 1, Singapore red, Rajali, Tabiti, Cerole, Madrasii
Ooty 1 & Creole Garlics
Garlic can be grown at elevation of 1200–2000 m from the mean sea level. It requires short days, cool (12–18 °C) moist period during vegetative growth. A well drained friable soil rich in organic matter with a pH range of 6 – 7 is ideal. Extreme acidic soils as well as heavy soils are not suited for this crop.
In hilly areas it is grown in two seasons.
1st season: June – July
2nd season: October – November
500 – 600 kg/ha
Garlic Seeds & Seedlings
Preparation of main field:
Plough the land to a fine tilth and form ridges and furrows at 30 cm spacing or beds of convenient sizes. Cloves are planted at 15 x 10 cm spacing.
Irrigate before and after planting; life irrigation is given on third day of planting and at weekly intervals of time.
Garlic sprinkler irrigation
Application of fertilizers:
During last ploughing incorporate 50 t/ha of FYM; Apply Azospirillum 2 kg and Phosphobacteria 2 kg/ha, 40:75:75 kg/ha NPK, 50 MgSO4 and 1 ton neem cake as basal and N 35 kg/ha at 45 days after planting.
Controlling rubberisation :
Avoid excessive application of N to minimise rubberisation. N should not be applied in the form of Urea. Use Ammonium sulphate. Spray 1500 ppm of CCC or MH on 30th day of planting. Reduce the frequency of irrigation to minimise rubberisation. Apply 0.2 % Boron 0.1 % Sodium molybdate on 30th, 60th and 90th days after planting.
Weeding should be done on 30th and 60th after planting.
Thrips can be controlled by spraying Methyl dematon 25 EC 1 ml/lit.
Nematode can be controlled by the application of Carbofuran 3 G 1 kg a.i./ha 30 days after planting.
Before planting treat the cloves with Carbendazim 2 g/kg.
Garlic Clove rot
Turning of tops to yellowish or brownish colour and starts drying is the ideal harvest index for harvesting garlic.
Harvested Garlic Cloves
8 – 12 t/ha
Garlic may be applied to different kinds of bread, usually in a medium of butter or oil, to create a variety of classic dishes, such as garlic bread, garlic toast, bruschetta, crostini and canapé.
Roasted Garlic Oil
Oils can be flavored with garlic cloves. These infused oils are used to season all categories of vegetables, meats, breads and pasta. Garlic, along with fish sauce, chopped fresh chilis, lime juice, sugar and water, is a basic essential item in dipping fish sauce, a highly used dipping sauce condiment used in Indochina. In East and Southeast Asia, chili oil with garlic is a popular dipping sauce, especially for meat and seafood. Tuong ot toi Viet Nam (Vietnam Chili Garlic Sauce) is a highly popular condiment and dip across North America and Asia.
In the typical serving size of 1-3 cloves (3-9 g), garlic provides no significant nutritional value with the content of all essential nutrients below 10% of the Daily Value (DV) (right table). When expressed per 100 grams, garlic contains several nutrients in rich amounts (> 20% DV), including vitamins B6 and C, and the dietary minerals, manganese and phosphorus. Per 100 gram serving, garlic is also a good source (10-19% DV) of certain B vitamins including thiamine (Vitamin B1), and pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5), as well as certain dietary minerals including calcium, iron, and zinc.
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