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Complete information about Fenugreek plant

SpiceCrops November 4, 2015

Cultivation of Fenugreek: Complete guide on Fenugreek plant farming involves in seed treatment, planting, pest management, irrigation, harvesting and uses.

Scientific name of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.) :

Fenugreek is an annual plant in the family Fabaceae, with leaves consisting of three small obovate to oblong leaflets. It is cultivated worldwide as a semiarid crop, and its seeds are a common ingredient in dishes from the Indian subcontinent.

Fenugreek is used as an herb (dried or fresh leaves), spice (seeds), and vegetable (fresh leaves, sprouts, and microgreens). Sotolon is the chemical responsible for fenugreek’s distinctive sweet smell. Cuboid-shaped, yellow- to amber-colored fenugreek seeds are frequently encountered in the cuisines of the Indian Subcontinent, used both whole and powdered in the preparation of pickles, vegetable dishes, daals, and spice mixes such as panch phoron and Sambar powder. They are often roasted to reduce bitterness and enhance flavor. In Malayalam it is known as “Uluva” .Fresh fenugreek leaves are an ingredient in some Indian curries. Sprouted seeds and microgreens are used in salads. When harvested as microgreens, fenugreek is known as samudra methi in Maharashtra, especially in and around Mumbai, where it is often grown near the sea in the sandy tracts, hence the name samudra, “ocean” in Sanskrit. Samudra methi is also grown in dry river beds in the Gangetic plains. When sold as a vegetable in India, the young plants are harvested with their roots still attached and sold in small bundles in the markets and bazaars. Any remaining soil is washed off to extend their shelf life.

 

Fenugreek Leaves & Flowers

Varieties:

Co 1, Pusa Early Bunching, Lam selection 1, Rajendra Kranti, Kissar Sonali, RMT1, CO 2.

Soil:

A rich well drained loamy soil is best suited for fenugreek cultivation.

Climate:

Cool and comparatively dry, frost free climate

Season:

June – July and October – November

Seed rate:

12 kg/ha is required

 

Fenugreek Seeds & Seedlings

Seed treatment:

Treated with Azospirillum 1.5 kg/ha + Trichoderma viride @ 50 g/ha for 12 kg of seeds.

Field preparation and sowing:

  • Prepare the main field to a fine tilth.

  • Add FYM 20 – 25 t/ha before last ploughing. Form beds and channels of 3.5 x 1.5 m.

  • Seeds are sown at a spacing of 20 X 15 cm. Spray pre-emergence herbicide Fluchloralin 700 ml in 500 lit of water per ha.

Manuring:
Basal
FYM 20 – 25 t/ha and N, P, K at 30:25:40 kg/ha.

Top dressing 20 kg of N at 30 days after sowing.

Irrigation:

First irrigation is given immediately after sowing, second on the third day and subsequently at 7 – 10 days intervals.

Aftercultivation:

Plants are thinned at 20 – 25 days after sowing and the thinned seedlings are used as greens. One pinching at a height of about 4” will encourage branching.Weeding is done as and when necessary.

Plant protection:
Diseases:
Root rot:
Root rot can be controlled by soil application of Neem cake @ 150 g/ha and seed treatment with Trichoderma viride @ 4g/kg  of seed and drenching with Carbendazim 0.5 g/l or Copper oxychloride 2 g/litre.

Powdery mildew:
Dust Sulphur at 25 kg/ha or foliar spray with wettable sulphur 2 g/lit at the time of appearance of disease.

 

Powdery Mildew on Fenugrek Leaves

Crop duration and harvest:
20 – 25 days for greens
90 – 100 days for grains

 

Harvesting fenugreek Leaves & Harvested Leaves

Yield:
The yield of green   :  4000 – 5000 kg/ha
Grains                    :  500 – 700 kg/ha

Uses:

In Turkish cuisine, fenugreek is used for making a paste known as çemen. Cumin, black pepper, and other spices are added into it, especially to make pastırma.

In Persian cuisine, fenugreek leaves are called (shanbalile). They are the key ingredient and one of several greens incorporated into ghormeh sabzi and eshkeneh, often said to be the Iranian national dishes.

Fenugreek Oil

In Egyptian cuisine, peasants in Upper Egypt add fenugreek seeds and maize to their pita bread to produce aish merahrah, a staple of their diet.

Fenugreek leaves contain these nutrients per 100 g of edible portion Carbohydrates : 6.0 g, Protein : 4.4 g, Fat : 0.9 g, Calcium : 395 mg, Phosphorus : 51 mg, Iron : 1.93 mg, Total energy: 49 kcal.

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