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Complete information about Cut chrysanthemum flower

FlowerCrops October 28, 2015

Cultivation of Cut chrysanthemum: Complete guide on Cut chrysanthemum flower farming involves in seed treatment, planting, pest management, irrigation and harvesting.

Scientific name of CUT CHRYSANTHEMUM (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzeuleu) Asteraceae:

Chrysanthemums , sometimes called mums or chrysanths, are flowering plants of the genus Chrysanthemum in the family Asteraceae. They are native to Asia and northeastern Europe. Most species originate from East Asia and the center of diversity is in China. There are countless horticultural varieties and cultivars.

Chrysanthemums are divided into two basic groups, garden hardy and exhibition. Garden hardy mums are new perennials capable of wintering in most northern latitudes. Exhibition varieties are not usually as sturdy. Garden hardies are defined by their ability to produce an abundance of small blooms with little if any mechanical assistance, such as staking, and withstanding wind and rain. Exhibition varieties, though, require staking, overwintering in a relatively dry, cool environment, and sometimes the addition of night lights.

The exhibition varieties can be used to create many amazing plant forms, such as large disbudded blooms, spray forms, and many artistically trained forms, such as thousand-bloom, standard (trees), fans, hanging baskets, topiary, bonsai, and cascades.

Chrysanthemums

Chrysanthemums

Chrysanthemum blooms are divided into 10 different bloom forms by the US National Chrysanthemum Society, Inc., which is in keeping with the international classification system. The bloom forms are defined by the way in which the ray and disk florets are arranged. Chrysanthemum blooms are composed of many individual flowers (florets), each one capable of producing a seed. The disk florets are in the center of the bloom head, and the ray florets are on the perimeter. The ray florets are considered imperfect flowers, as they only possess the female productive organs, while the disk florets are considered perfect flowers, as they possess both male and female reproductive organs.

Varieties:
Standard types: Bonfire Orange, Bonfire Yellow.
Spray types: Reagan Yellow, Reagan White, Nanako, etc.,

Bonfire Orange

Bonfire Orange

Reagan White

Reagan White

Climate: Cut chrysanthemums are grown under polyhouses with the following environmental conditions.
Temperature              : 16 – 250C
Relative humidity        : 70 – 85 %
CO2                          : 600 – 900 ppm
Photoperiod                : Long day conditions with 13 hours light & 11 hours darkness during vegetative stage (upto 4-5 weeks from planting) and short day conditions with 10 hours light & 14 hours darkness during flower bud  initiation stage.

Soil:

Well drained sandy loam soil with good texture and aeration or growing medium made of 1: 1: 2 of soil, compost and cocopeat with pH of 5.5 to 6.5.

Growing media:
The growing media consists of soil, compost and coco peat in the ratio of 1:1:2. The beds are formed with 1 m width, 0.3m height and at convenient length. The soil pH must be 6.5 with 1 to 1.5 EC (Electrical Conductivity).

Propagation:

Terminal cuttings and tissue culture plants are used. Terminal cuttings are widely used for commercial cultivation. Cuttings of 5-7 cm length are taken from healthy stock plants and are induced to root by treating with IBA (1000 ppm).

Planting:
Beds of 1m width, 0.3m height and convenient length are formed. Nets (with cell size depending on the spacing adopted) are placed on the beds and planting is done.

Spacing:
15x 15 cm (45 plants/m2) or 10 x 15 cm (67 plants/m2).

Irrigation:
Drip irrigation with 8-9 litres of water/m2/day.

Nutrition:
Basal application of DAP – 50 g/m2
Weekly schedule – from 3rd week after planting

Fertilizer management:
NPK @ 20:20:10 g/m2 is applied through fertigation at weekly intervals

Growth regulators:
Alar 50 – 150 gm/100 lit water and B 9 at 8 – 25 ml/lit of water is used twice at the growing stage.

Special practices:

Pinching:
First pinching – 3 weeks after planting; 2nd pinching – 5 weeks after planting.

Disbudding:
In spray varieties, only the large apical bud is removed and the lateral buds are retained. In standard varieties, the lateral buds are removed and only apical buds are allowed to develop.

Blindness:
It occurs when the night temperature is too low and the days are short at the time when flower buds are forming. A rosetted type of growth is indicative of this difficulty. Center petals that fail to develop can be due to excessive heat; or in dark weather some varieties apparently lack enough food to open the flower. Chlorosis, or yellowing of the upper foliage, is generally associated with over watering, excessive fertilizer in the soil, or insects or diseases attacking the root system. Continued growth of shoots and failure to form flower buds when short days are started the mean night temperature was too low. Sunscald is prevalent on standards in flower in very warm weather. The petals turn brown and dry up.

Light requirement:
Chrysanthemum is very much influenced by light and hence photoperiod should be regulated. (Photoperiod should be regulated as detailed under ‘climate’

Growth regulators:
Spray GA3 (50 ppm) at 30, 45 and 60 days after planting to increase flower stem length.

Weed management:
Weeding and hoeing are done manually as and when required.

Plant protection:
Pests:
Leaf miner:
Spray Imidacloprid @ 0.5 ml/l or Acetamiprid @ 0.3 g/l.

Mines on chrysanthemum leaves

Mines on chrysanthemum leaves

Thrips:
Spray Fipronil @ 1.0 ml/l. Keep Yellow Sticky Trap 10 nos. for 100 sq.m area.

Thrips of Chrysanthemum

Thrips of Chrysanthemum

Aphids:
Spray Methyl demeton @ 2 ml/l or Monocrotophos @ 1 ml/l.

Green peach aphids on underside of a chrysanthemum leaf

Green peach aphids on underside of a chrysanthemum leaf

Red spider mite:
Spray Abamectin 1.9 EC @ 0.5 ml/l or Propargite @ 2 ml/l.

Diseases:
White Rust:
Spray Azoxystrobin @ 1ml/l or Triflooxystrobin + Tebuconazole @   0.75 g/l.

White rust symptoms on chrysanthemum

White rust symptoms on chrysanthemum

Leaf spot:
Spray Macozeb @ 2g/l or Azoxystrobin @ 2 ml/l or Difenoconazole @ 0.5ml/l.

Small spots develop on upper leaf surfaces while buff to pink pustules form on the undersides

Small spots develop on upper leaf surfaces while buff to pink pustules form on the undersides

Wilt:
Soil drenching with Carbendazim @ 1 g/l or Triflooxystrobin + Tebuconazole @ 0.75 g/l.

Powdery mildew:

Spray Wettable Sulphur @ 2g/l or Azoxystrobin @ 1ml/l.

Powdery mildew on chrysanthemum Leaves

Powdery mildew on chrysanthemum Leaves

Harvest:
Harvest index:
Standard types – Flowers are harvested when 2 – 3 rows of rays florets are perpendicular to the flower stalk.
Spray types – When 50% flowers have shown colour for distant markets; when two flowers have opened and others have shown colour for local markets.

Yield:

Standard types:67 flower stems/m2
Spray types:  260 flower stems/m2

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