Cultivation of Clove: Complete guide on Clove plant farming involves in seed treatment, planting, pest management, irrigation, harvesting and uses.
Scientific name of Clove (Syzigium aromaticum) Myrtaceae:
Cloves are the aromatic flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae, Syzygium aromaticum. They are native to the Maluku Islands in Indonesia, and are commonly used as a spice. Cloves are commercially harvested primarily in Indonesia, India, Madagascar, Zanzibar, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Tanzania.
The clove tree is an evergreen tree that grows up to 8–12 m tall, with large leaves and sanguine flowers grouped in terminal clusters. The flower buds initially have a pale hue, gradually turn green, then transition to a bright red when ready for harvest. Cloves are harvested at 1.5–2.0 cm long, and consist of a long calyx that terminates in four spreading sepals, and four unopened petals that form a small central ball.
Leaves, Flowers & Cloves
Cloves in hindi : laung.
Local cultivars are used.
Soil and climate:
Humid tropical climate with an annual rainfall of 150 – 250 cm and a mean temperature range of 20°C to 30°C and elevation up to 1000 m are suitable. Deep rich loams with high humus content and laterite soils are the best suited for clove cultivation.
June – December is found to be optimum.
Slopes facing South and West should be avoided. North and North-Eastern slope is preferred.
Seeds are extracted from ripe fruits and sown immediately. The seeds germinate in five to six weeks. Two year old seedlings are planted in pits of 30 cm x 30 cm x 30 cm size filled with soil and FYM 10 kg/pit at a spacing of 6 m either way. Apply 50 g/pit Azospirillum before planting.
Provide shade for seedlings. Mulch the basins with dried leaves. Weed the basins as and when necessary.
Banana can be grown to provide shade during the initial establishment. Small temporary pandals may provided for partial shade during initial establishment.
Frequent watering is essential in the initial stages in the absence of rains. Irrigation should be given during summer months. Applying 8 litres of water either through drip or through basin during the months of January – May is beneficial.
One year old plants can be applied with FYM 15 kg, N 20 g, P 20 g, K 60 g in two splits during June – July and September – October. Every year the dosage is correspondingly increased and a bearing tree of 7 years old may be applied with FYM 50 kg, N 300 g, P 300 g and K 960 g. In addition to this apply 50 g in each of Azospirillum and Phosphobacterium should be applied one month after manuring.
Smear the surface of the stem and branches with Carbaryl 50 WP @ 2 g/lit of water.
Pour Quinalphos 25 EC @ 1 ml/lit in to the bore hole and plug it.
Apply Phorate 60g/tree in the soil
Stem Borer of Clove
Foliar spray with Monocrotophos 1.5 ml/l or Dimethoate 1ml/l.
Leaf eating caterpillar:
Leaf eating caterpillar can be controlled by spraying Quinalphos 25 EC @ 2 ml/lit.
The foliage of affected trees should be sprayed with Carbdendazim 0.1 % or a prophylactic spray with Bordeaux mixture 1 % also prevents the disease.
Pre-monsoon spray of Pseudomonas fluorescens (PfPPB) @ 0.2 % + Lawsonia leaf extracts (5 %) or Spray with Copper oxy chloride @ 0.25 %.
Clove Leaf spots
Affected trees suddenly wilt and dried off. Prolonged drought and water stagnation affects the root growth. This is controlled by
(1) Drenching of Carbendazim or Mancozeb 1 g/lit of water in the root zone
(2) Wilting plants should be provided with shade and irrigated immediately
(3) In sloppy areas drip irrigation is recommended
(4) Dried leaves should be spread to conserve the moisture
(5) Growing of wind barriers to avoid the damages to the trees.
Bearing starts from sixth year onwards. The flower buds should be harvested when they are fully mature but before opening. The buds are harvested as clusters and separated and dried in the sun for five to seven days.
Freshly harvested clove Buds & Dried Clove Buds
2 – 3 kg dried buds/tree.
Cloves are used in the cuisine of Asian, African, and the Near and Middle East countries, lending flavor to meats, curries, and marinades, as well as fruit such as apples, pears or rhubarb. Cloves may be used to give aromatic and flavor qualities to hot beverages, often combined with other ingredients such as lemon and sugar. They are a common element in spice blends such as pumpkin pie spice and speculoos spices. In Mexican cuisine, cloves are best known as clavos de olor, and often accompany cumin and cinnamon.
A major component of clove taste is imparted by the chemical eugenol, and the quantity of the spice required is typically small. It pairs well with cinnamon, allspice, vanilla, red wine and basil, as well as onion, citrus peel, star anise, or peppercorns.
Clove oil can be used to anesthetize fish, and prolonged exposure to higher doses (the recommended dose is 400 mg/l) is considered a humane means of euthanasia.
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