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Complete information about Cinnamon

SpiceCrops November 5, 2015

Cultivation of Cinnamon: Complete guide on Cinnamon farming involves in seed treatment, planting, pest management, irrigation, harvesting and uses.

Scientific name of Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume.) Lauraceae:

Cinnamon is a spice obtained from the inner bark of several trees from the genus Cinnamomum that is used in both sweet and savoury foods. While Cinnamomum verum is sometimes considered to be “true cinnamon“, most cinnamon in international commerce is derived from related species, which are also referred to as “cassia” to distinguish them from “true cinnamon”.

 cinnamon flower

Cinnamon Leaves, Flowers & Fruits

Cinnamon is the name for perhaps a dozen species of trees and the commercial spice products that some of them produce. All are members of the genus Cinnamomum in the family Lauraceae. Only a few of them are grown commercially for spice.

 

Cinnamon Sticks and Powder

Varieties:
YCD 1, PPI – 1, Nithyasree, Navasree, Konkan Tej, Sugandhini

Soil and climate:
Sandy or lateritic soils with high humus are suitable. This crop can be grown up to an altitude of 800 – 1000 m from Mean Sea Level receiving an annual rainfall of 150 to 250 cm.

Season:
June – December is found to be optimum

Propagation:

Seeds / Semi hardwood cuttings.

Cinnamon Seeds

Nursery:

Seeds collected from selected mother trees are sown immediately in nursery beds in rows of 12 cm apart. July – August is the best season for sowing. From beds, seedlings are transplanted to polythene bags when they attain a height of 15 cm.

Cinnamon Seedlings in Nursery

Planting:
Take pits of 60 cm3 at 2 m x 2 m spacing. Fill the pits with top soil and FYM 10 kg. One year old seedlings or rooted cuttings are transplanted under partial shade.

Irrigation:
Protective watering during summer is beneficial.

Aftercultivation:
Immediately after transplanting, the plants are provided with temporary shade by erecting a small pandal. Weeds are removed as and when necessary.  Young trees are cut close to the ground to produce side shoots. This process is called “Coppicing”. By stooling around the stumps, more side shoots are encouraged from the base of the trees.

Plant protection:
Pests:
Shoot borer:

Shoot borer can be controlled by smearing the stem and branches with Carbaryl 50 WP @ 2 g/lit of water once in a month.

Coffee red borer:
Coffee red borer can be controlled by trunk injection of Monocrotophos 36 WSC @ 1 ml/bore hole with a waiting period of 20 days to be allowed between application and harvest of the bark.

Leaf eating caterpillar, red ants and termites:
Dust Methyl parathion 1.3%.

Diseases:
Leaf spot:
Leaf spot can be controlled by spraying 1 % Bordeaux mixture or 0.25 % copper oxy chloride.

Leaf spot in Cinnamon leaves

Harvest:
The harvesting starts from 4th or 5th year after planting. The shoots are cut for the extraction of bark once in May and again in November. As soon as rain ceases, cutting of shoots for peeling of bark is commenced. After cutting, young shoots spring up from the stump which will be ready for removal in subsequent season within 18 months. The bark is peeled from the selected shoots of 18 to 24 months old, which are usually one metre long and 1 to 2 cm thick.  Shoots ready for peeling are removed from the stumps and terminal ends of shoots are also removed. Peeling is done by knives after scraping off the outer bark. From leaves, Cinnamon oil can be extracted by steam distillation. Harvested produce is called as ‘Quills’.

    

Cinnamon Harvesting & Drying Harvested Cinnamon

Yield:
100 g of dried bark/bush.
35 kg of leaf oil/ha/year.

Uses:

Cinnamon is cultivated by growing the tree for two years, then coppicing it, i.e., cutting the stems at ground level. The following year, about a dozen new shoots will form from the roots, replacing those that were cut.

Cinnamon Oil

The flavour of cinnamon is due to an aromatic essential oil that makes up 0.5 to 1% of its composition. This essential oil is prepared by roughly pounding the bark, macerating it in sea water, and then quickly distilling the whole. It is of a golden-yellow colour, with the characteristic odour of cinnamon and a very hot aromatic taste. The pungent taste and scent come from cinnamic aldehyde or cinnamaldehyde (about 90% of the essential oil from the bark) and, by reaction with oxygen as it ages, it darkens in colour and forms resinous compounds. Other chemical components of the essential oil include ethyl cinnamate, eugenol (found mostly in the leaves), beta-caryophyllene, linalool, and methyl chavicol.

Cinnamon Bark

Cinnamon bark is used as a spice. It is principally employed in cookery as a condiment and flavouring material. It is used in the preparation of chocolate, especially in Mexico, which is the main importer of cinnamon. It is also used in many dessert recipes, such as apple pie, doughnuts, and cinnamon buns as well as spicy candies, coffee, tea, hot cocoa, and liqueurs. In the Middle East, cinnamon is often used in savoury dishes of chicken and lamb. In the United States, cinnamon and sugar are often used to flavour cereals, bread-based dishes, such as toast, and fruits, especially apples; a cinnamon-sugar mixture is even sold separately for such purposes. It is also used in Turkish cuisine for both sweet and savoury dishes. Cinnamon can also be used in pickling. Cinnamon powder has long been an important spice in enhancing the flavor of Persian cuisine, used in a variety of thick soups, drinks, and sweets.

Ten grams (about 2 teaspoons) of ground cinnamon contain:

  • Energy: 103.4 kJ (24.7 kcal)
  • Fat: 0.12 g
  • Carbohydrates: 8.06 g (of which – fibres: 5.31 g, sugars: 0.2 g)
  • Protein: 0.4 g

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