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Complete information about Cashew nut tree

PlantationCrops October 30, 2015

Cultivation of Cashewnut: Complete guide on Cashew nut tree farming involves in seed treatment, planting, pest management, irrigation, harvesting and uses.

Scientific name of Cashewnut (Anacardium occidentale L.) Anacardiaceae:

The cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale) is a tropical evergreen tree that produces the cashew seed and the cashew apple. It can grow as high as 14 metres (46 ft), but the dwarf cashew, growing up to 6 metres (20 ft), has proved more profitable, with earlier maturity and higher yields.

Originally native to northeastern Brazil, the tree is now widely cultivated in Vietnam, Nigeria and India as major production countries.

Cashew leaves

Cashew leaves

Cashew Fruits

Cashew Fruits

Cashewnut

Cashewnut

 

 

 

Varieties:

Tamil Nadu Varieties     :     Vridhachalam-1,Vridhachalam-2,Vridhachalam-3,VRI 4,VRI (CW) H1
Kerala Varieties               :     Akshaya (H-7-6), Amrutha (H-1597), Anagha (H-8-1), Anakkayam-1(BLA-139-1), Dhana (H-1608), Dharasree (H-3-17), K-22-1, Kanaka (H-1598), Madakkathara -1 (BLA-39-4), Madakkathara-2(NDR-2-1), Priyanka (H-1591), Sulabha (K-10-2)
Andhra Pradesh Varieties     :     BPP-1,BPP-2,BPP-3,BPP-4,BPP-5,BPP-6,BPP-8(H2/16)
Karnataka Varieties     :     Chintamani-1,NRCC-1,NRCC-2,Ullal-1,Ullal-2,Ullal-3,Ullal-4,UN-50
Maharastra     :     Vengurla-1,Vengurla-2,Vengurla-3,Vengurla-4,Vengurla-5,Vengurla-6,Vengurla-7
Goa     :     Goa-1
Orissa     :     Bhubaneswar-1
West Bengal     :     Jhargram-1

Vridhachalam-3

Vridhachalam-3

VRI 4

VRI 4

Akshaya

Akshaya

Amrutha

Amrutha

Vengurla

Vengurla

BPP-8

BPP-8

Soil and climate:
It grows up well in all soils. Red sandy loam is best suited. Plains as well as hill slopes upto 600 – 700 feet elevation are suitable.

Season:
June – December is optimum for cultivation.

Propagation:
Mainly propagated by soft wood grafting, air layering and epicotyl grafting

Requirement of plants:
About 200 plants/ha can be planted.

Preparation of field:
Pits of 45 cm x 45 cm x 45 cm size are dug and filled up with a mixture of soil + 10 kg FYM + one kg neem cake

Spacing:
A spacing of 7 m either way is adopted.

High Density Planting:
Spacing of 5 x 4 m accommodating 500 plants per hectare is recommended prune the interlocking branches during the July-August to maintain the frame.

Manuring (per tree):

Fertilizer application may be done during November – December in the East Coast areas. Wherever possible the fertilizer can be applied in 2 equal split doses during June-July and October-November periods under east coast area, a fertilizer schedule of 1000:125:250 g NPK/tree is recommended tree.

Intercropping:
Plough the interspaces after the receipt of rain and raise either groundnut or pulses or minor millets till the trees reach bearing age.

Irrigation:

Normally grown as a rainfed crop. Irrigation once in a west from flinching to fruit maturity stage is good to increase the yield.

Training and pruning:
Develop the trunk to a height of 1 m by removing low lying branches. The dried twigs and branches should be removed every year.

Rejuvenation of old cashew orchard by top working:
Old and senile cashew orchards with poor yielder are cut down leaving a stump of 1 – 3 m height from the ground level. The emerging new sprouts are used as rootstock for epicotyl grafting. Suitable scions are collected and grafted on to the new sprouts.

Plant protection:
Pests:
Stem borer:
1. Collection and destruction of affected shoots
2. Swabbing the bark of exposed roots and shoots with Carbaryl 50 WP 2 g/lit. Twice a year before the onset of South West Monsoon (March – April) and after cessation of monsoon (November) painting of coal tar + kerosene mixture (1:2) or swabbing with a suspension of Carbaryl 50 WP (4 g/lit) can be done up to one metre length in the exposed trunk region after shaving the bark or swab the tree trunk with neem oil 5% thrice during JanuaryFebruary, May-June, and September-October..
3. Root feeding with Monocrotophos 36 WSC 10 ml + 10 ml of water kept in a polythene bag on one side of the tree and keep the same amount on the other side of the tree (Total 20 ml/tree) divided into two equal halves will give protection when there is moderate incidence.
4. Remove grubs from early stage infested trees and drench the damage portion with Chlorpyriphos 0.2% @ 10 ml/lit or Neem Oil 5%.

Cashew stem borer

Cashew stem borer

Tea mosquito bug:

  • Spray application of phosalone 35 EC@ 2.0 ml, followed by carbaryl 50WP @ 2g/l and monocrotophos @ 2ml/l at vegetative flush stage, panicle initiation stage and nut formation stage respectively are recommended for the management of tea mosquito bug.
  • Spray schedule involving three rounds of spray viz., first spraying with Profenophos (0.05%) at flushing stage, second spraying with Chlorpyriphos (0.05%) at flowering and third spraying with Carbaryl (0.1%) at fruit set stage is most effective.
Tea mosquito bug on cashew

Tea mosquito bug on cashew

Shoot caterpillars:
Shoot caterpillar can be controlled by spraying Profemophos 50 EC @ 2 ml/lit.

Root borer:
Root borer can be controlled by pouring Monocrotophos 10 ml/tree in the bore holes (Insecticide 5 ml + 5 ml water).

Leaf miner:
1. Collect and destroy the damaged plant parts
2. Spray NSKE 5% two rounds, first at new flush formation, second at flower formation

Cashew Leaf miner

Cashew Leaf miner

Diseases:
Die back or Pink disease:
Prune the affected shoots just below the affected portion and apply Bordeaux paste. Spray 1 % Bordeaux mixture or any copper fungicide like Blitox or Fytolan 0.25 % twice i.e. in May – June and again in October as a prophylactic measure.

Anthracnose:
1. Remove the affected portions of plant/branches
2. Spray 1 % of Bordeaux mixture + Ferrous sulphate at the time of flush initiation

Cashew Anthracnose

Cashew Anthracnose

Harvest:
The plant starts yielding 3rd year onwards. The peak picking months are March and May. Good nuts are grey green, smooth and well filled. After picking, the nuts are separated from the apple and dried in the sun for two to three days to bring down the moisture content to 10 to 12 %. Properly dried nuts are packed in alkathene bags. This will keep for 6 months.

Yield:
About 3 – 4 kg/tree/year can be obtained.

Uses:

The cashew seed, often simply called a cashew, is widely consumed. It is eaten on its own, used in recipes, or processed into cashew cheese or cashew butter. The cashew apple is a light reddish to yellow fruit, whose pulp can be processed into a sweet, astringent fruit drink or distilled into liquor.

The shell of the cashew seed yields derivatives that can be used in many applications from lubricants to paints, and other parts of the tree have traditionally been used for snake-bites and other folk remedies.

In a 100 gram serving, raw cashews provide 553 calories, 67% of the Daily Value (DV) in total fats, 36% DV of protein, 13% DV of dietary fiber and 11% DV of carbohydrates. Cashews are rich sources (> 19% DV) of dietary minerals, including particularly copper, manganese, phosphorus and magnesium (79-110% DV), and of thiamin, vitamin B6 and vitamin K (32-37% DV). Iron, potassium, zinc and selenium are present in significant content (14-61% DV). Cashews (100 grams, raw) contain 113 mg of Beta-Sitosterol.

Cashew oil is a dark yellow oil for cooking or salad dressing pressed from cashew nuts (typically broken chunks created during processing). This may be produced from a single cold pressing.

Cashew oil

Cashew oil

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