Vermicomposting is basically a managed process of worms digesting organic matter to transform the material into a beneficial soil amendment. Good quality compost production in ambient temperature can be accomplished in shorter time by the process of vermicomposting that involves use of proper species of earthworms.
The native cellulase activity of earthworms and microorganisms in earthworm gut promote faster decomposition of ingested organic material. The earthworms being voracious eaters consume the biodegradable matter and give out a part of the matter as excreta or vermi-castings.
Process of vermicomposting:
The process of composting crop residues / agri wastes using earthworms comprise spreading the agricultural wastes and cow dung in gradually built up shallow layers. The pits are kept shallow to avoid heat built-up that could kill earthworms. To enable earthworms to transform the material relatively faster a temperature of around 30 degree Celsius is maintained.
The final product generated by this process is called vermicompost which essentially consist of the casts made by earthworms eating the raw organic materials. The process consists of constructing brick lined beds generally of 0.9 to 1.5 m width and 0.25 to 0.3m height are constructed inside a shed open from all sides.
For commercial production, the beds can be prepared with 15 m length, 1.5 m width and 0.6 m height spread equally below and above the ground. While the length of the beds can be made as per convenience, the width and height cannot be increased as an increased width affects the ease of operation and an increased height on conversion rate due to heat built up.
Prerequisites for Vermicomposting:
- Fresh dung.
- Farm wastes (straw from wheat, soybean, chickpea, mustard etc.)
- Rock phosphate
- Selection of earthworm: Earthworm species native to the local soil and vermicompost or otherwise efficient acclimatized exotic species.
- Earthworm: 1000-1200 adult worms (about 1 kg per quintal of waste material).
- Water: 3-5 liters in every week per heap or pit.
- Adequate water and power supply.
There are some demerits to be cared about:
- If there is excess water then it will lead to odor problems.
- Centipedes will eat the worms.
- Huge land requirements.
There are some merits also:
- It is zero pollution, environmental friendly technology.
- There is no gaseous emission or sludge formation.
- It has no major operating expenses such as electricity for aeration, mechanical equipment etc.,
- The process can be restarted after a gap.
- The process is simple to operate and maintain.
- It can replace artificial fertilizers.
Particulars of item
|I.||Land and Building||Year 1||Year 2
|1.||Land (On lease)||—||—|
|2.||Leveling and earth filling for vermicompost sheds||7500||—|
|3.||Fencing and gate||25000||—|
|4.||Open Shed with brick lined bed bottom & platform with RCC / MS pipe post & truss and thatch /HDPE / locally available roof (@ 1000/m
2) for :
|a.||Vermicompost beds (15 m*1.5 m*24 nos = 540 m2 + 20m2 pathways/utility = 560m2)||560000||—|
|b.||For finished products 30 m2||30000||—|
|c.||Godown / Store cum office 50 m2@ 5000/-per m2||250000||—|
|II.||Implements and Machinery|
|Shovels, spades, crowbars, iron baskets, dung fork,
buckets, bamboo baskets, trowel,
|2||Plumbing and fitting tools||1500||—|
|3||Power operated shredder||25000||—|
|4||Sieving machine with 3 wire mesh sieves-0.6 m x 0.9m size -power operated with motor||45000||—|
|5||Weighing scale (100 kg capacity)||2500||—|
|6||Weighing machine (platform type)||6000||—|
|7||Bag sealing machine||5000||—|
|8||Culture trays (plastic)(35 cm x 45cm) -4 Nos
|9||Wheel barrows -2 Nos.
|III||Water provision –Borewell with hand pump, pipe,
|2||Furniture & fixtures||25000||—|
|Earthworms (@1 Kg per m3 and @`300/Kg, total utilized bed volume = 324 m3)||97200||—|
|Total Capital Cost||1183300||—|
This is a sample Vermicompost production project report and has approximate values.